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Particle Case Marker


  • Indeclinable Nominal +
  • Attributive form of declinable words +
  • Attributive form of auxiliary verb +
  • Some particles +
  • Sentence +


  • indicates possessive
  • is used as pronoun
  • nominalizes verbs and adjectives

When の ends a sentence, its meaning varies by its tone. With a rising tone, の indicates question. In contrast, with a falling tone, の indicates a confident conclusion or emotional emphasis. When の ends a sentence with a falling tone, の is used by women or children only. Men uses のだ instead.


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